In 1612, Surabaya was a crowded Trading harbor. Many Portuguese traders bought spices from native traders. Native traders bought their spices hidden away from Banda, although, there was an agreement with VOC about prohibition of trading for their own importance.
In 1625, Mataram kingdom have dominated Surabaya . After subjected in Mataram kingdom, in 1967 Surabaya got disorder as a result from The Makasar pirates attacks. In that situation, finally, a Mataram Prince from Madura tribe, Trunojoyo appeared to rebel of Mataram king. Accompanying with Makasar peoples' aid, Trunojoyo has dominated Madura and Surabaya successfully, .
In Trunojoyo's domination, Surabaya became a transit harbor and Brantas river as a goods hoarding place from fertile area. Kalimas called ” Gold river” which brought many valuable commodities from the inland.
With desire in helping Mataram, hence, Dutch colonizer sent Cornelis Speelman who has equipped with great war army to Surabaya in 1677. finally, Trunojoyo's fortress has dominated by Speelman. Afterwards, General Governor Couper returned Surabaya to Mataram.
In 18th century, Surabaya became battle arena between Untung Surapati and Dutch colonizers which led by Govert Knol .
After the straight battle, in November 11,1743, Paku Buwono II from Mataram and General Governor Van Imhoff in Surakarta signed an agreement about He entrusted his right of Java and Madura island South Coast (including Surabaya ) to VOC which have given an aid until he reached his throne in Mataram kingdom. But Hindia Belanda army, recently visited Surabaya in April 11, 1746.
Voc has established New Structural government in North Coast of Java and Madura with a position governor in Semarang . And, in Surabaya , Gezaghebber in den has elected to be A Governor.
In 1794 until 1798, the leader of North of Java was Dirk Van Hogendorp. In September 6th, 1799, Frederick Jacob Rothenbuhler replaced Van Hogendorp to lead until 1809. Surabaya , has been attacked by England navy army led by Admiral Pillow in which finally, left Surabaya.
After VOC got bankrupt, Hindia Belanda has entrusted to Dutch Government. In 1808 until 1811, Surabaya under the Direct government of General Governor Herman Willem Daendels in whish he made Surabaya became A small Europe city. Surabaya has built as a trade city and also fortress city.
In 1811-1816, Surabaya under in England domination which led by Raflfles. Surabaya became a pride city in 1813 , until William Thorn in is book ”Memoir of Conquest of Java” said that Gresik city (in last period became a crowded harbor city) has became ancient than Surabaya .
Afterwards, Surabaya once again has been dominated by Dutch. In 1830-1850, Surabaya was truly formed as a fortress city with Prins Hendrik fortress in Kalimas estuary. In 1870, Surabaya has expanded to South side as a modern city.
Perkembangan Kota dan Arsitektur Kolonial Belanda di Surabaya
1870-1940, Andi, Yogyakarta, 1996